The Kingdom of Navarre
El Reino de Navarra
Flag of the Kingdom of Navarre.
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Navarre.
Motto: Jaungoikoa eta Lege-zaharra "God and the old laws."
Anthem: Euskaraz, nazioa, askatasuna! "(/for the/) Basque, (/for the/) nation, (/for our/) liberty!"
Capital: Iruña, (PR)* Nafarroa. (Pamplona, (PR)* Navarra.)
Largest City: Bilbo, (PR)* Bizkaia. (Bilbao, (PR)* Biscay.)
Dependencies (Colonies): Donoignazio, Haizemekoa, Egurzuri.
Official Language: Basque
Regional Languages: Cantabrian, French, Spanish, Catalan.
Government: Regional Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy.
King: King Xabier-Borboi (Bourbon)
Prime Minister: Beñat Jiménez Iturrikoa.
Mainland Population: 4,938,223.
Donoignazio and Egurzuri: 51,300.
GDP PPP: $168.1 billion.
GDP PPP per Capita: $34,041.
The kingdom of Pamplona and then Navarre formed part of the traditional territory of the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe who occupied the southern slope of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay. The western Pyrenees passages were the only ones allowing good transit through the mountains, other than those through the southern Pyrenees. In response, the Cordoban Emirate launched a campaign to place the region under their firm control, and in 781 defeated a local leader called Ibn Balask and seated a muwallad governor, Mutarrif ibn Musa, in Pamplona. In 806 and 812 Pamplona fell again into the Franks' hands. The Emirate also attempted to reestablish its control in the region, and in 816 fought a battle there against the "Enemy of Allah", Balask al-Yalaski, who was killed along with Garcia Loup, kinsman of Alfonso II of Asturias, Sancho, premier knight in Pamplona, and Saltan, premier knight of the Mayus. Louis' son Pepin, now King of Aquitaine, stamped out the Vasconic revolt in Gascony and then pursued the chieftains who had taken refuge in southern Vasconia, i.e. Pamplona and Navarre, no longer controlled by the Franks. He sent over an army led by the counts Aeblus and Aznar-Sanchez, accomplishing their goals with no resistance in Pamplona. Out of this pattern of resistance against both Frankish and Cordoban interests arose the Basque chieftain Íñigo Arista, who tradition has elected as king of Pamplona in 824, giving rise to a dynasty of kings in Pamplona that would last for four score years. Pamplona is cited in 778 by Frankish accounts as a Navarrese stronghold, while this may be put down to their vague knowledge of the Vasconic territory. At this time, the county of Aragon, previously only nominally a vassal state, came under the direct control of the kings of Pamplona.
Garcia Sanchez's son, Sancho II Garces, nicknamed Abarca, ruled as king of Pamplona from 970 to 994. In many places he appears as the first King of Navarre and in others the third; however, he was at least the seventh king of Pamplona. Under Sancho III the Great and his immediate successors, Pamplona reached the height of its power and extent. Inheriting Pamplona, including Aragon, Sancho III conquered Ribagorza and Sobrarbe, which had been depopulated since the collapse of Moorish control. The minority of García Sánchez of Castile forced the County of Castile to submit to vassalage under Sancho, the count's brother-in-law, and García's 1028 assassination allowed Sancho to appoint his younger son Ferdinand as count.
Division of the Domains.
On his death, Sancho divided his possessions among his four sons. Of Sancho's sons, Garcia of Najera inherited the Kingdom of Pamplona and merged into it the eastern part of the County of Castile; the rest of Castile and the lands between the Pisuerga and the Cea went to the eldest son, Fernando; to Gonzalo were given Sobrarbe and Ribagorza; lands in Aragon were allotted to the bastard son Ramiro. Younger son Ferdinand I inherited a diminished County of Castile, but after acquiring the Kingdom of León, he used the title of King of Castile as well, and he enlarged his realm by various means. The bastard son of Sancho III, Ramiro de Aragon, founded the Navarrese line of Aragon. García, the eldest legitimate son, was to be feudal overlord of his brothers, but he was soon challenged by his brothers, leading to the first partition of the kingdom after his death in the Battle of Atapuerca, in 1054.
High Middle Ages.
King Theobald II, married King Louis IX of France's daughter Isabella and accompanied his saintly father-in-law upon his crusade to Tunis. His son, the future King Philip IV of France, had become engaged to the young sovereign and married her in 1284. The Kingdom of Navarre remained in personal union with the Kingdom of France (Whom protected them from Spain and held it's Independence secured) until the death of King Charles I in 1328. King Philip III devoted himself to the improvement of the laws of the country, and joined King Alfonso XI of Castile in battle against the Moors of 1343. His eldest son, on the other hand, King Charles III, surnamed the Noble, gave the land once more a peaceful and happy government, exerted his strength to the utmost to lift the country from its degenerate condition, reformed the government, built canals, and made navigable the tributaries of the Ebro flowing through Navarre. As he outlived his legitimate sons, he was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Blanche I, and son-in-law, King John II.
Trastámaras in Control.
King John II ruled Aragon in the name of his brother, Alfonso V of Aragon. He left his son, de jure King Charles IV, only with the rank of governor, whereas Queen Blanche I had designed that he should succeed her, as was the custom. In 1450, John II himself regained to Navarre, and, urged on by his ambitious second wife, Juana Enriquez, endeavoured to obtain the succession for their son Ferdinand. As a result a violent civil war broke out, in which the powerful party of the Agramontes supported the king and queen, and the party of the Beaumonts-called after their leader, the chancellor, John of Beaumont-espoused the cause of Charles; the highlands were on the side of the prince, the plains on that of the king. He died in 1461, without having been able to reconquer his kingdom of Navarre; he named as his heir his next sister, de jure Queen Blanche II, who was immediately imprisoned by John II, and died in 1464. His sister and successor, Queen Catherine, who, as a minor, remained under the guardianship of her mother, Madeleine of Valois, was sought by Ferdinand the Catholic as a bride for his eldest son; but she gave her hand in 1494 to the count of Périgord who thus became King John III.
Navarre Independent Again.
Ferdinand the Catholic did not relinquish his long-cherished designs on Navarre. Their infant son, Germain de Foix, with the help of France inherited Navarre and it's independence was once again secure. When Navarre refused to join one of many Holy Leagues against France and declared itself neutral, Ferdinand asked the Pope to excommunicate Albret, which would have legitimised his attack. When the Pope refused, Ferdinand fabricated a false bull and sent his general Don Fadrique de Toledo to invade Navarre in 1512, part of the second phase of the War of the League of Cambrai. The Spanish Inquisition was extended into Navarre; the Jews had already been forced into conversion or exile by the Alhambra Decree in Castile and Aragon, and now the Jewish community of Navarre and the Muslims of Tudela suffered its persecution. It was in 1521 that the Spanish lost all hopes of regaining Navarre, Navarrese Independece was now fully secured.
Navarre in the North Pyrenees.
A small portion of Navarre north of the Pyrenees, Lower Navarre, along with the neighbouring Principality of Béarn part of the Navarrese Kingdom was cause of disputes between Navarre and France. After the territorial issues in Bayonne from both Navarre and France, Navarre decided to give such territories North of the Pyrenees as thanksgiving for securing their independence and as a gift from their alliance. In 1620 the Treaty of Baiona was signed, North Navarre was now fully incorporated to France.
Colonization and Spain's Help.
During the mid-17th Century, Navarre's economy was fully sustainable partially because of the large amount of metals in Navarre, which were greatly required for the construction of Ships, which Spain adored. After a shortage of Irons and other necessary metals, Spain proposed a treaty with Navarre. Navarre would give Spain their required metals, but, Spain would have to help Navarre in their colonization plans. The deal was accepted and the treaty was signed. Some of the places colonized by Navarre are still part of their territory, while most of them got their independence or where attacked by other countries, e.g. Spain and Jalisco, Spain and Argentina, etc.
World War One.
Navarre remained neutral during World War One, and the surplus of metals in Navarre was able to create an economic boom for Navarre, selling metals to both sides. During the Spanish Influenza epidemies, Navarre was not as widely affected, but there were major economic slowdowns caused by it.
Franco in Navarre and World War Two.
Navarre remained neutral during World War II, and continued to sell metals to the Allied Forces. Meanwhile, Franco's strong dislike to Basque nationalists, people and language made the Navarrese people supporting the option to act against his severe efforts to diminish the Basque culture. This caused a lot of issues between Spain and Navarre, which were finally resolved after King Juan Carlos' coronation, Spain then apologized for the death of thousands of Basque nationals and Navarrese residents.
In 1986, Navarre along with Spain joined the European Economic Community (Now EU), and in 1999 fully replaced the dirua, for the new Euro.
On 9 January 2004, Navarre became the second nation to give full marriage and adoption rights to homosexual couples, following Spain's footsteps and becoming a much more liberal nation.
Currency: Euro (€)
Member of Trade Organizations: WTO, OECD and the EU.
**(GDP PPP: 34,041)
GDP (PPP) per capita: $168,102,049,143 (168.1 billion)
--- Main Industries: Metals and Metal Manufacturers, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, automobiles, tourism, textiles and apparel, food, wine, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.
Main Exports: Motor Vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, electronic devices, medicines (pharmaceuticals), and other consumer goods.
(Foodstuffs) Agriculture Products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine, grapes, citrus, beef, dairy products, fish.
Main Imports: Fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring instruments, Machinery, and equipment.
Gross External Debt: $1.327 trillion. (est.)
The economy of Navarra is the 16th-largest economy in the world, the sixth-largest in the European Union, and the fifth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP comparisons. Navarra is regarded as the world's 20th most developed country, among the countries of very high human development. Navarra's mixed capitalist economy and it's per capita income roughly matches those of Spain, France and Germany. However; after a long 15 years of sustainable and high and above average GDP growth, it began to slow down in 2007 and entered into recession in 2008. GDP contracted in by 4.2% in 2009 ended a 18 year growth trend, and by another 0.1% before turning positive again in 2010. The reversal of the economy reflected the oversupply of construction and housing that failed for consumer spending. The government's effort to boost the economy only through stimulus spending, extended the unemployment rates form as low as 6% to 18% in just 3 years. The budget deficit worsened from 2.4 of GDP to 7.8 in 2009, surpassing almost three times the euro-zone limit. Navarra's large budget deficit and poor economic growth have made it vulnerable to financial contagion from other highly-indebted euro zone members, especially Spain, despite the government's efforts to cut spending, privatize industries, and boost competitiveness through labor market reforms. Banks'high exposure to collapsed construction and real estate market also poses a continued risk for the sector. Navarra oversaw a restructuring of the savings in the bank sector in late 2009, and provided more than $10 billion in capita to various institutions. The Bank of Navarra, however, seeks to boost confidence in the financial sector by pressuring banks to clean their losses and become stronger.
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